Pandemic Influenza Resources

Quick Links
Pandemic Preparedness
Guidelines and Policies
Economics, Best Practices and Case Studies
-- Economic Aspects
-- Best Practices
-- Case studies
Bills (Indiana)
Internet Collections of Pandemic Information & Resources
Training Resources

Preparation for Pandemics

  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Providing Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide. Provides community planners—as well as planners at the institutional, State, and Federal levels—with information on planning for and responding to a mass casualty event (MCE). 2006 Nov
  • ASTHO. Nature's terrorist attack: pandemic influenza. Preparedness planning for state health officials. 2002 Nov [Full text]
  • Barnett DJ, Balicer RD, Lucey DR, et al. A systematic analytic approach to pandemic influenza preparedness planning. PLoS Med 2005 Dec; 2(12) [Full text]
  • Capua I, Alexander DJ. Avian influenza: recent developments. Avian Pathol 2004 Aug;33(4):393-404 [Full text]
  • Cox NJ, Tamblyn SE, Tam T. Influenza pandemic planning . Vaccine 2003 May 1;21(16):1801-3 [Abstract]
  • CSTE. Influenza preparedness state plans [Web page]
  • Dolin R. Influenza: interpandemic as well as pandemic disease. (Perspective) N Engl J Med 2005 Dec 15;353(24):2535-7 [Full text]
  • Eurosurveillance Editorial Team, Paget J. Considerable progress in European preparations for a potential influenza pandemic. Eurosurveillance Weekly 2004 Dec 23;8(52) [Full text]
  • Fauci AS. Pandemic influenza threat and preparedness . Emerg Infect Dis 2006 Jan;12(1):73-7 [Full text]
  • Fedson DS. Vaccination for pandemic influenza: a six point agenda for interpandemic years . Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004 Jan;23(1 Suppl):S74-7 [Abstract]
  • Forum for Global Health Protection. A news, information service, and peer-reviewed journal on new and emerging health threats, established with support from the UK 's Health Protection Agency.
  • Gensheimer KF, Fukuda K, Brammer L, et al. Preparing for pandemic influenza: the need for enhanced surveillance. Vaccine 2002 May 15;20 Suppl 2:S63- [Abstract]
  • Greger M. Bird Flu: A virus of our own hatching . Open Access Publication [HTML Full text]
  • Gust ID, Hampson AW, Lavanchy D. Planning for the next pandemic of influenza. Rev Med Virol 2001 Jan-Feb;11(1):59-70 [Abstract]
  • Hampson AW. Surveillance for pandemic influenza . J Infect Dis 1997 Aug;176(Suppl 1):S8-13 [Full text]
  • IDSA: Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza . 2007 [Website]
  • Kilbourne ED. Influenza pandemics: can we prepare for the unpredictable? Viral Immunol 2004;17(3):350-7 [Abstract]
  • Madjid M, Lillibridge S, Mirhaji P, et al. Influenza as a bioweapon . J R Soc Med 2003; 96(7):345-6 [Abstract]
  • Maldin B, Inglesby TV, Nuzzo J, et al. Bulls, bears, and birds: preparing the financial industry for an avian influenza pandemic . Conference report. Biosec Bioterr 2005 Dec;3(4):363-5 [Abstract]
  • Meslin EM, Alyea JM, Helft RP. Pandemic flu preparedness: ethical issues and recommendations to the Indiana State Department of Health . Indiana University Center for Bioethics. 2007 August. [Full text]
  • Mills CE, Robins JM, Bergstrom CT , et al. Pandemic influenza: risk of multiple introductions and the need to prepare for them. PLoS Med 2006 Jun;3(6) [Full text]
  • Monto AS. Vaccines and antiviral drugs in pandemic preparedness . Emerg Infec Dis 2006 Jan;12(1):55-60 [Full text]
  • NYS Workgroup on Ventilator Allocation in an Influenza Pandemic, NYS DOH/ NYS Task Force on Life & the Law. Allocation of Ventilators in an Influenza Pandemic: Planning Document. DRAFT FOR PUBLIC COMMENT, MARCH 15, 2007. [Website & Full text]
  • Osterholm MT. A weapon the world needs. Nature 2005 May 6;435(7041):417-8 [Full text]
  • Osterholm MT. Preparing for the next pandemic . (Perspective) N Engl J Med 2005 May 5;352(18):1839-42 [Full text]
  • Oxford JS. Preparing for the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Lancet Infect Dis 2005 Mar 1;5(3) [Extract - Access requires free registration]
  • Schwartz B, Gellin B. Vaccination strategies for an influenza pandemic. J Infect Dis 2005 (Apr 15);191(8):1207-9 [Abstract]
  • Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science 2003 Nov 28;302(5650):1519-22 [Abstract]


Guidelines and Policies

  • CDC. Ethical Guidlines in Pandemic Influenza. Ethical guidelines in Pandemic Influenza – Recommendations of the Ethics Subcommittee of the Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. February 15, 2007. [Full text]
  • CDC. Interim CDC-NIH recommendation for raising the biosafety level for laboratory work involving noncontemporary human influenza (H2N2) viruses. Excerpted from draft: Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories. Ed 5. May 3, 2005 [Full text]
  • CDC. Interim guidance for airline flight crews and persons meeting passengers arriving from areas with avian influenza. Published Feb 18, 2004; updated frequently [Full text]
  • CDC. Interim recommendations for infection control in health-care facilities caring for patients with known or suspected avian influenza [Full text]
  • CDC. Q & A on Executive Order adding potentially pandemic influenza viruses to list of quarantinable diseases . Apr 11, 2005 [Full text - See Executive Order under "White House" below]
  • CDC. Update on influenza A(H5N1) and SARS: Interim recommendations for enhanced U.S. surveillance, testing, and infection controls [Full text]
  • CDC/HICPAC. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals, 2007 [Full text]
  • CDC/HICPAC. Guidelines for preventing healthcare associated pneumonia, 2003 [Full text]
  • European Commission. Influenza and how the EU should respond to a pandemic. Press release, Mar 31, 2004 [Full text]
  • HHS. Pandemic influenza planning: a guide for individuals and families . 2006 Jan [Full text]
  • HHS. Transcript of press briefing on the US government's HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan. Nov 2, 2005 [Full text]
  • Indiana State Department of Health. Pandemic Influenza Plan. [Full text]
  • Indiana State Department of Health. Protocol for Mass Prophylaxis. [Full text]
  • Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Committee on Modeling Community Containment for Pandemic Influenza, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. Modeling Community Containment for Pandemic Influenza: A Letter Report. National Academy Press. December, 2006. [Full text]
  • PHAC (Public Health Agency of Canada). Canadian pandemic influenza plan. Released Feb 12, 2004 [Full text]
  • USDA/APHIS. Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002: Possession, use, and transfer of biological agents and toxins. Final Rule 7 CFR Part 331 and 9 CFR Part 121. Fed Reg 2005 Mar 18;70(52):13242-92 [Full text]
  • USDA/APHIS. Questions and answers on the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002: Possession, use, and transfer of select agents and toxins. APHIS factsheet. 2005 May [Full text]
  • White House. Executive order: amendment to Executive Order 13295 relating to certain influenza viruses and quarantinable communicable diseases . Apr 1, 2005 [Full text - See also "CDC Q & A" above]
  • White House. National strategy for pandemic influenza. Nov 1, 2005 [Full text]


Economics, Best Practices and Case Studies

Economic Aspects
  • Balicer RD, Huerta M, Davidovitch N, et al. Cost-benefit of stockpiling drugs for influenza pandemic . Emerg Infect Dis 2005 Aug; 11(8) [Full text]
  • Lee VJ, Phua KJ, Chen MI, et al. Economics of neuraminidase inhibitor stockpiling for pandemic influenza, Singapore . Emerg Infect Dis 2006 Jan;12(1) [Full text]
  • Lien O, Franco C, Gronvall GK, et al. Getting medicine to millions in a public health emergency: can retailers play a role? From University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. 2005 [Full text]
  • McKibbon WJ. Global macroeconomic consequences of pandemic influenza. Lowy Institute for International Policy. 2006 Feb  [Full text]
  • Medema JK, Zoellner YF, Ryan J, et al. Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply. Virus Res 2004 Jul;103(1-2):9-15 [Abstract]
  • Osterholm MT, Branswell H. Emerging pandemic: costs and consequences of an avian influenza outbreak. Webcast of presentation at Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Sep 19, 2005 [Full text]
  • World Economic Forum. Global risks 2006 [Full text]

Best Practices

  • Call SA, Vollenweider MA, Hornung CA, et al. Does this patient have influenza? JAMA 2005 Feb 23;293(8):987-97 [Full text]
  • CDC. New laboratory assay for diagnostic testing of avian influenza A/H5 (Asian lineage). MMWR 2006 Feb 3;55(Early release):1 [Full text]
  • Chen H, Smith GJ, Li KS, et al. Establishment of multiple sublineages of H5N1 influenza virus in Asia: implications for pandemic control . Proc Natl Acad Sci 2006 (published online Feb 10) [Full  text]
  • Kaiser R, Coulombier D, Baldari M, et al. What is epidemic intelligence, and how is it being improved in Europe? Eurosurveillance Weekly 2006 Feb 2;11(2) [Full text]
  • Laver G, Garman E. Pandemic influenza: its origin and control. Microbes Infect 2002 Nov;4(13):1309-16 [Abstract]
  • Luke CJ, Subbarao K. Vaccines for pandemic influenza. Emerg Infec Dis 2006 Jan;12(1):66-72 [Full text]
  • Newton DW, Mellen CF, Baxter BD, et al. Practical and sensitive screening strategy for detection of influenza virus. J Clin Microbiol 2002 Nov; 40(11):4353-6 [Full text]
  • Thomas PG, Keating R, Hulse-Post DJ, et al. Cell-mediated Protection in Influenza Infection. Emerg Infec Dis 2006 Jan;12(1):48-54 [Full text]

Case studies

  • Belshe RB. The origins of pandemic influenza: lessons from the 1918 virus . N Engl J Med 2005 Nov 24;353(21):2209-11 [Full text]
  • Butler, D. Breaking the silence: “If this was a test to see whether Indonesia could contain a virus, they failed miserably”.. Personal blog of Declan Butler, a senior reporter at Nature, Published May 31st, 2006 [Full text]
  • Butler, D. Pandemic 'dry run' is cause for concern: Indonesian bird-flu cluster rings alarm bells.. Nature 441, 554-555 (1 June 2006), Published online 31 May 2006 [Full text]
  • Cooper B. Influenza pandemic scenario analysis report: could a pandemic be contained using antiviral agents? Eurosurveillance Weekly 2004 May 6;8(19) [Full text]
  • Cox NJ, Subbarao K. Global epidemiology of influenza: past and present . Annu Rev Med 2000 Feb;51:407-21 [Full text]
  • Defense Threat Reduction Agency. A Historical Assessment of Nonpharmaceutical Disease Containment Strategies Employed by Selected U.S. Communities During the Second Wave of the 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic. Final Report. January 31, 2006 [Full text]
  • Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Pandemic Influenza: 1918 Lessons Learned. Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to Control the Spread of Pandemic Influenza: Relevance and Applicability of Lessons from 1918 to Current Pandemic Planning. Workshop Report. Workshop Sponsored by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, in Collaboration with the University of Michigan Schools of Medicine and Public Health. April 6-7, 2006 [Full text]
  • Dowdle WR. Influenza pandemic periodicity, virus recycling, and the art of risk assessment. Emerg Infect Dis 2006 Jan;12(1):34-9 [Full text]
  • Ferguson NM, Cummings DAT, Cauchemez S, et al. Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia. Nature 2005 Sep 8;437:209-14 [Full text]
  • Institute for Bioethics, Health Policy and Law at the University of Louisville School of Medicine.  Quarantine and Isolation: Lessons Learned from SARS. Report to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2003 Nov [Full text]
  • Kilbourne ED. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. Emerg Infec Dis 2006 Jan;12(1):9-14 [Full text]
  • Krause R. Swine flu and the fog of epidemics. Emerg Infec Dis 2006 Jan; 12 (1):40-3 [Full text]
  • Schoch-Spana M. Implications of pandemic influenza for bioterrorism response . Clin Infect Dis 2000;31(6):1409-13 [Full text]
  • Tam JS. Influenza A (H5N1) in Hong Kong: an overview. Vaccine 2002 May 15;20 Suppl 2:S77-81 [Abstract]



  • Becker, A. Pandemic planning puts ethics in spotlight Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy; May 25, 2006 (CIDRAP News). [Full text]
  • Brett AS, Zuger A. The run on Tamiflu: should physicians prescribe on demand? (Perspective) N Engl J Med 2005 Dec 22;353(24):2636-7 [Full text]
  • Centers for Disease Control & Preventsion (CDC). Public Health Ethics [Website]
  • Emanuel EJ, Wertheimer A. Who Should Get Influenza Vaccine When Not All Can?
    Science 12 May 2006: 854-855. [Link to Journal]
  • Gostin LO. Influenza pandemic preparedness: legal and ethical dimensions.
    Hastings Cent Rep. 2004 Sep-Oct;34(5):10-1. [PubMed link]
  • Gostin LO. Medical countermeasures for pandemic influenza: ethics and the law. JAMA 2006 Feb 1;295(5):554-6 [Extract]
  • Hick JL, O'Laughlin DT. Concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in an epidemic. Acad Emerg Med. 2006 Feb;13(2):223-9. [Abstract]
  • Kass NE. An ethics framework for public health. Am J Public Health 2001;91:1776-1782.  [Full Text]
  • Kotalik J. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: ethical issues. Bioethics. 2005 Aug;19(4):422-31. [Abstract]
  • Schoch-Spana M, Fitzgerald J, Kramer BR; UPMC Influenza Task Force. Influenza vaccine scarcity 2004-05: implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. Biosecur Bioterror. 2005;3(3):224-34. [Abstract]
  • University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Influenza Working Group. Stand on guard for thee: ethical considerations in preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. Nov 2005 [Full text]
  • World Health Organization (WHO). The Ethics Forum on Pandemic Influenza . [Website]


Additional Resources

Bills (Indiana)
  • Barry JM. The threat of pandemic influenza: are we ready? Institute of Medicine. Nov 16, 2004. [Full text]
  • Kolata, Gina Bari  Flu : the story of the great influenza pandemic of 1918 and the search for the virus that caused it. New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux, c1999.  [IUCAT, Worldcat]
  • Moreno, JD.  In the wake of terror : medicine and morality in a time of crisis / edited by Jonathan D. Moreno. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.  [IUCAT, Worldcat]
  • Neustadt, Richard E., and Harvey V. Fineberg. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, 2005. [NAP]
Internet Collections of Pandemic Information & Resources
  • Flu Wiki
    NOTE: Wikis are open to the general public and anyone can post articles and resources. In reviewing the content on the Flu Wiki, please keep in mind that information should be verified for accuracy. Please review the Editorial Policy of the site so as to understand the objectives of the Flu Wiki and the context of the information presented.
  • GenBank
    NOTE: The World Health Organization on Friday welcomed the announcement that the Indonesian government had agreed to share with the global scientific community the genetic blueprints of the H5N1 avian flu viruses retrieved from human cases in that country.
    A WHO official said the Geneva-based organization has instructed the WHO reference laboratories that sequenced the viruses for Indonesia to deposit their blueprints into Genbank, a databank which places no restrictions on who can study the genetic information it contains....the site so as to understand the objectives of the Flu Wiki and the context of the information presented.

    [With Indonesia's say so, WHO to share bird flu data with scientific community, CBC News, August 4, 2006. Excerpt.]
  • National Public Radio
    - Use website Search function and the keyword “ pandemic ” to locate podcasts, news briefs and reports.
  • Nature Magazine -- May 26 issue of Nature featuring a collection of commentaries and other articles on pandemic and avian influenza.
    - Pandemic Flu

Training Resources


Many thanks to Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis MLS Intern, Chao Huang.

IU Center for Bioethics | 410 W. 10th St., Suite 3100 | Indianapolis, IN 46202 | Tel: 317-278-4034 | Fax: 317-278-4050